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Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US

Tracing ancestors in London within the 18th century might be massively daunting. The parish registers are massive and it may be tough to determine your ancestor amongst all the opposite candidates within the neighborhood who share the identical identify. As well as, a lot of our ancestors would have arrived in London from elsewhere, attracted by the alternatives that the massive metropolis afforded however there are not any useful census information to disclose the place they have been born. That mentioned, there are some wealthy document sources that may be utilised when tracing London ancestors, notably if they’d a talented occupation.

Catherine Whit(t)ford and William Maxwell have been wed on twenty fifth August 1752 within the parish church of St Mary, Newington, Surrey. As the marriage befell simply earlier than the passing of Lord Hardwicke’s Marriage Act the next 12 months, the entry is characteristically transient and solely their names are given within the composite register:

Parish Registers of St Mary Newington, Surrey – London Metropolitan Archives; London, England; Reference Quantity: P92/MRY/008
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London, England, Church of England Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1538-1812

Newington, located on the south financial institution of the River Thames, was largely a farming neighborhood for the primary half of the 18th century however after their marriage, William and Catherine should have seen the world dramatically change with the development of Westminster Bridge in 1750 and enhancements to London Bridge, which attracted growth to the world. Since William was a waterman, who ferried passengers in his boat throughout the Thames, the elevated visitors should have been helpful. Between 1757 and 1765, William and Catherine had six youngsters baptised within the neighbouring parish of St John Horsleydown, Southwark:

  • Ann bpt 9 January 1757 (b 19 Oct 1756)
  • Elizabeth bpt 28 Oct 1758
  • William bpt 7 Jan 1759 (b 14 Dec 1758)
  • John bpt 11 Dec 1760 (b 11 Dec 1760)
  • Amy bpt 5 Sep 1762 (b 19 Aug 1762)
  • Catherine bpt 4 Nov 1765 (b 16 Oct 1765)
Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
Engraving of the parish church of St John Horsleydown, Bermondsey, London SE1, seen from the northwest. In 1940 the church was severely broken by a Luftwaffe bomb and after 1968 it was demolished.
John Buckler (1770-1851), Public area, through Wikimedia Commons

One additional baby, Judith Sarah Maxwell, was born to William and Catherine however after her beginning, her dad and mom didn’t get her baptised of their native parish church. As a substitute, they registered her beginning at Dr Williams’s Library:

Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
Certificates of Delivery of Judith Sarah Maxwell – Dr Williams’s Library RG 5 68
Nationwide Archives (U.Ok.)
England & Wales, Non-Conformist and Non-Parochial Registers, 1567-1970
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The Basic Register of Births of Youngsters of Protestant Dissenters was arrange at Dr Williams’s Library in 1742, as a method of offering proof of a beginning within the absence of a baptism. When the Register was closed in 1837, almost 50,000 births had been registered. Dad and mom paid a small payment to document the identify and date of beginning of their baby. The dad and mom needed to carry a certificates from the native incumbent, a midwife or from witnesses who may confirm that the kid had certainly been born. After the beginning had been recorded within the register, the certificates was filed and a replica was returned to the dad and mom, endorsed with a notation that the beginning had been registered. The certificates are held by the Nationwide Archives within the assortment, RG5.

The beginning registration of Judith Sarah Maxwell recorded rather more info than that given when her siblings have been baptised. Of specific word was the data that her mom, Catherine, was the daughter of William Whitford. Armed with this information, I discovered an listed reference to Catherine’s baptism, which had taken place in Southwark on twenty eighth December 1732 within the parish church of Saint Olave on Tooley Avenue. Catherine was the daughter of William Whitford and his spouse, Amy, and her beginning date was given as 1 December 1732. I additionally discovered the baptisms of two youthful siblings within the parish registers of St John Horsleydown: William in 1737 and Ann in 1740:

Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
Parish Registers of St John Horsleydown, Surrey
London, England, Church of England Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1538-1812
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London Metropolitan Archives; London, England; London Church of England Parish Registers; Reference Quantity: P71/Jn/009
Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
Parish Registers of St John Horsleydown, Surrey
London, England, Church of England Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1538-1812
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London Metropolitan Archives; London, England; London Church of England Parish Registers; Reference Quantity: P71/Jn/009

Occupations of the fathers are recorded within the unique registers of St John Horsleydown. On the baptism of his son, William, in 1737, William Whitford is described as a plaisterer and on the baptism of his daughter, Ann, in 1740, a painter.

Georgian London noticed a growth in home constructing, with rows and rows of equivalent terraces constructed. Many of those homes, although constructed from brick, had a showy stucco facade product of plaster, which was comprised of lime, gypsum, hay and straw. Stucco turned an indicator of the Georgian terrace and sometimes it was adorned with elaborate and decorative patterns, often called pargetting. It was then painted so William Whitford presumably did each jobs. Plaster was additionally used on inside partitions and decorative plasterwork was in demand on ceilings inside homes.

Sadly, I may discover no hint of the wedding of William Whitford and his spouse, Amy, however I did discover a seemingly second marriage of William on third Could 1743, which had taken place clandestinely on the Fleet Jail. William Whitford, a plaisterer and widower, married Susanna Ustes, a widow at Boyed’s:

Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
Fleet Marriage Registers RG7 Nationwide Archives (U.Ok.)
London, England, Clandestine Marriage and Baptism Registers, 1667-1754
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By the 1740s, over half of all marriages in London have been going down within the environs of the Fleet Jail, maybe in a tavern or a espresso home, the place unscrupulous clergyman who had been imprisoned for chapter, have been doing a roaring commerce. So long as each events consented and have been of the authorized age, 14 for males and 12 for females, it was completely authorized if the wedding was performed by a Church of England clergyman. Banns didn’t should be revealed and there was no have to buy an costly licence. No questions have been requested, and {couples} may marry cheaply, rapidly and secretly. It wasn’t till 1753 that the ensuing scandals and abuses turned so nice that laws was introduced in to carry these marriages to an finish.

A plaisterer (plasterer) was a talented craftsman and William Whitford must have been admitted to the Plaisterers Livery Firm with the intention to follow in London. The Plaisterers Firm, which acquired its Royal Constitution in 1501, was based to control the standard of plaistering and supply welfare for members and their widows.

Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
Coat of Arms of Plaisterers Livery Firm granted 1546/7
“Azure on a chevron engrailed argent a rose gules budded or, stalked and leaved vert, between two fleurs de lys azure; in chief a trowel fessewise between two plasterer’s hammers palewise all argent dealt with or, in case a plasterer’s brush, of 4 knots tied argent dealt with or.”

As soon as admitted to a livery firm, an individual was granted the liberty of the livery firm and earlier than 1835, you needed to be a freeman of a livery firm with the intention to change into a freeman of the Metropolis of London. The Metropolis of London was managed by the freemen, who had sure rights and privileges, such because the unique proper to hold on a commerce or to vote in an election. Looking Ancestry’s assortment, “Freedom of the Metropolis of London, Admission Papers” for the surname of Whitford, I discovered a document for a person named John Whitford:

Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
London, England, Freedom of the Metropolis Admission Papers, 1681-1930
London Metropolitan Archive; Reference Quantity: COL/CHD/FR/02/0480-0487
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John Whitford had change into a freeman on twenty third April 1725 by patrimony, which suggests he was born to a freeman after his father’s personal admission. His father was named as William Whitford, a plaisterer and citizen of the Metropolis of London, which implies that William senior was each a member of a livery firm and a freeman of the Metropolis. Witnesses, who subscribed their names on the finish of the doc, declared on oath that John had been born in lawful wedlock after the admission of his father into the liberty of the Metropolis. The sum recorded by the date means that John was 21 when he was admitted and had been born in 1704. Other than patrimony, freedom may be granted by servitude, serving an apprenticeship to a freeman, or redemption, buying one’s admission.

A document of a baptism of a John Whitford, the son of William Whitford and his spouse, Anne, is recorded within the parish of St Alphage London Wall on twenty second June 1707:

Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
Parish Registers of St Alphage Wall, London
London Metropolitan Archives; London, England; London Church of England Parish Registers; Reference Quantity: P69/Alp/A/001/Ms05746/002
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John and Anne Whitford additionally had one other son, William, baptised in St Alphage London Wall on sixteenth December 1705:

Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
Parish Registers of St Alphage Wall, London
London Metropolitan Archives; London, England; London Church of England Parish Registers; Reference Quantity: P69/Alp/A/001/Ms05746/002
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It will appear seemingly that that is the baptism of William, the daddy of Catherine although not like his brother, John, no hint of the unique document granting his freedom of the Metropolis of London has been discovered. The Whitford household have been residing within the parish of St Alphage Wall, and the Corridor of the Plaisterers Firm was located in the identical parish. William Whitford married Anne Joyce on the parish church on thirty first October 1703:

Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
Parish Registers of St Alphage Wall, London
London Metropolitan Archives; London, England; London Church of England Parish Registers; Reference Quantity: P69/Alp/A/001/Ms05746/002
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As talked about beforehand, a technique of gaining admittance right into a livery firm was by servitude, after an apprenticeship to a freeman had been accomplished. Apprentices sometimes began on the age of 14 and in return for cost (a premium), their grasp would educate them a commerce and supply board and lodging. Apprentices had one 12 months from the beginning of their apprenticeship to enrol their apprenticeship indenture with the Metropolis Chamberlain, or they must pay a better payment in the event that they subsequently utilized for freedom of the Metropolis. Luckily, the unique indenture of the apprenticeship of William Whitford senior was within the Metropolis of London freeman information:

Tracing a Household with a Expert Occupation in 18th Century London Acquire US Obtain US
London, England, Freedom of the Metropolis Admission Papers, 1681-1930
London Metropolitan Archive; Reference Quantity: COL/CHD/FR/02/0191-0197
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William Whitford, the son of William Whitford of Easham [Evesham] within the county of Worcester, plaisterer, was apprenticed to Thomas Goodman, citizen and plaisterer of London for seven years from seventh September 1696. As was commonplace follow, there was a protracted record of the principles and rules, governing the behaviour of the apprentice. William Whitford made his mark on the backside, Because it was an indenture, there have been initially three elements to the doc and the phrases have been written out in triplicate. The highest two elements have been signed and given to every respective social gathering while the third half on the base of the doc was filed. The indenture was reduce in an irregular means so every half must match collectively. The wavy line meant that it will be tough to forge.

My analysis into the Whitford household has proven how advantageous it may be when a talented occupation is practised by a number of members of a household. The proof gathered from parish registers and the Freedom of the Metropolis Admission Papers revealed that there have been a minimum of three generations of Whitford plaisterers. Catherine Whitford’s grandfather, William Whitford, first arrived in London in 1696 to serve an apprenticeship with a plaisterer named Thomas Goodman and his apprenticeship indenture recorded the dear info that he was from Evesham, Worcestershire. On condition that he was round 14 12 months outdated in 1696, he was most likely baptised round 1682 in Evesham, the son of a plaisterer named William Whitford. The seek for the household’s roots continues.

@ Judith Batchelor 2023

#Tracing #Household #Expert #Occupation #18th #Century #London

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