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HomeNewsUncovering the True Identification of James William Johnson: Half 3 Including DNA...

Uncovering the True Identification of James William Johnson: Half 3 Including DNA Proof Get hold of US

When researching the id of an ancestor who could have modified his identify, analyzing the folks he related to can result in essential connections. Partly 1 of this collection, we checked out utilizing the FAN methodology (evaluating Associates, Associates, and Neighbors). The timeline clearly confirmed that Patrick Alford modified his identify to James William Johnson between 1879 and 1885 to cover from Texas regulation. Partly 2, we added affirmation of the connection between James and his Alford siblings by way of documentary analysis. Might DNA proof add the ultimate proof to this case of a modified id?

With documentary proof confirming James William Johnson was born Patrick Alford, I needed to see what the DNA proof might reveal. If Patrick’s mother and father, Robert and Alcy, have been married in 1849 and remained with the identical kids from 1860 by way of 1880, then they virtually definitely have been a organic household unit. Partly three, I’ll cowl Y-DNA and Autosomal DNA evaluation in evaluating DNA from Johnson descendants with Alford descendants to check my principle and show James’s true id. For privateness, I anonymized DNA match names on this article and within the linked report on the backside of the web page.

DNA Evaluation

James William Johnson’s great-grandson with the identical identify–James William Johnson II–descended by way of James and Sara’s son, Charles Parker Johnson. James II had his Y-DNA examined at FamilyTreeDNA (FTDNA) and his Autosomal DNA examined at AncestryDNA.

A father solely shares Y-DNA along with his sons. Y-DNA adjustments little or no and may be helpful in tracing distant relationships alongside the paternal line. I used Y-DNA to check the speculation that James William Johnson was born Patrick Alford.

A father and a mom each share half of their Autosomal DNA (atDNA) with every baby. This kind of DNA may be helpful in figuring out newer relationships alongside each the paternal and maternal ancestral traces. I used atDNA outcomes to help the now-documented household relationships.

Y-DNA

Y-DNA can hyperlink totally different surnames collectively and assist type out household relationships. Since Y-DNA can solely go from a father to his son, tracing the direct male line offers organic proof to check with documentary proof. In modern-day America, surnames are handed down from a father, who acquired that surname from his father, and so forth. What occurs if the daddy decides to alter his surname?

I reasoned {that a} father might resolve to alter the documentation, however the DNA will stay the identical. Within the case of James William Johnson, the Y-DNA carried by his descendants agreed with this logic. I observed that no Y-DNA match carried the Johnson surname; this validated a break within the paper path. The shortage of proof additionally disproved the chance that Patrick’s mom, Alcy, married or had a misattributed paternal occasion with a Johnson male. In distinction, I noticed many Y-DNA matches carrying the Alford surname, offering the organic proof to show reliability within the DNA.

Y-DNA Matches

Carefully associated Y-DNA matches are a part of the identical haplogroup. Haplogroup is the “identify given to a big department of the genetic human tree.” James II’s haplogroup, R-M269, is quite common, nevertheless it does level to an Alford connection. The best Y-DNA match compares the identical variety of markers inside a comparatively shut timeframe to trace down a typical ancestor. Utilizing 67 markers and a genetic distance inside three steps can find an ancestor inside 4 to eight generations. This matches contained in the genealogical timeframe to check the speculation of a organic relationship between the modern Johnsons and the distant Alfords.

The outcomes of a 67-marker comparability for take a look at taker James William Johnson II at FamilyTree DNA (FTDNA) revealed the next:

  • Twenty-seven Y-DNA matches shared the Alford surname
  • Twenty-two have been inside a genetic distance of 1 to a few steps
  • Eighteen have been in haplogroup R-M269.
  • Zero matches had the Johnson surname.

4 matches stood out:

  1. Nameless A
  2. Nameless B
  3. Nameless C
  4. Nameless D

 

Y-DNA match Nameless A’s earliest recognized ancestor was Charles Alford, born in 1790 and died in 1858. This fell throughout the vary of 4 to eight generations from James William Johnson II and contours up with documentary proof. The diagram beneath illustrates the documented paternal traces of the take a look at taker, James II, and the Y-DNA match, Nameless A, to Charles Alford (see Determine 3-1).

Determine 3-1. Alford Y-DNA Line

I observed the opposite three Y-DNA matches shared the identical surname, have been in the identical haplogroup, and had the identical genetic distance. This was a great signal. The FTDNA TiP (TIme Predictor) Report confirmed a chance that James shared a comparatively shut widespread ancestor with them. In a desk, I in contrast three matches, Nameless B, Nameless C, and Nameless D, with Nameless A (shaded in gentle blue). The upper chance at or earlier than 4 generations might imply that Nameless B, C, and D share a current widespread ancestor across the Patrick Alford/James Johnson timeframe.

 

Autosomal DNA

Everybody inherits precisely 50% of every dad or mum’s atDNA. Past that, roughly 25% from grandparents, 12.5% from grandparents, 6.25% from great-great-grandparents, and about 3.12% from a 3rd great-grandparent. DNA inheritance is a random course of; everybody inherits totally different quantities of DNA from totally different ancestors. For instance, second cousins will at all times share DNA, however the quantities will range. Third and fourth cousins is not going to at all times share DNA, though they’re genealogically associated. A relationship is measured in items known as centimorgans (cM). A testing firm applies chance to the entire variety of shared cM to foretell how the take a look at taker is said to a DNA match. Their relatedness correlates with common and vary. In observe, after we take a look at the variety of cM a DNA match shares, we anticipate that quantity to fall inside a pre-determined vary based mostly on the recognized or theoretical relationship. When the variety of cM falls throughout the anticipated vary, it is a good signal that the DNA match is related, and we will safely proceed with our analysis. I like to make use of the Shared cM Challenge Device at DNA Painter for this step.

In Determine 3-2, I listed a number of relationships, their common cM shared, and pre-determined cM ranges with which to check related DNA matches for the Johnson undertaking. Discover {that a} second cousin (2c) match normally shares an common of 229 cM, however the quantity of DNA can vary anyplace from 41 to 353 cM. For instance this in observe, take a look at the crimson daring letters in Desk 5 beneath. James 3, a predicted 2C match, shares 169 cM with James II. 169 cM falls throughout the 41-353 cM vary, so it is a good signal that James 3 is a related match and I can safely proceed with my analysis. In case you’re new to DNA, you might need a headache like I did at first, and that’s okay. That is difficult material. The following part is much more of a problem to understand. Simply hold swimming or skip to the conclusion and are available again when that headache goes away!

Determine 3-2. Relationship Ranges Utilizing the Shared cM Challenge Device.

Checking that cM shared are throughout the predicted cM vary is a elementary DNA idea that simply turns into overwhelming when managing and evaluating a lot of DNA matches from a number of household traces. To simplify complicated data, I organized nineteen matches in a desk and color-grouped them by Most Current Frequent Ancestor (MRCA). I anonymized names in accordance with the sibling traces of every MRCA couple; there are 5 {couples}.

Ancestry ThruLines© makes use of self-reported tree data to determine the MRCA couple. I used Ancestry ThruLines© to assemble DNA matches that descended by way of every MRCA couple represented on this examine. I then chosen one match from every sibling line who shared the very best quantity of DNA with my consumer, James II. I created a desk to maintain monitor of the main points: Johnson-Anderson matches are color-grouped in white; Johnson-Clark in grey, Alford-Evans in blue, Alford-Tipton in inexperienced; and Evans-Parks in yellow. The completed product is extraordinarily information-dense. For readers new to DNA, give attention to columns labeled “cM SHARED” and “cM RANGE” and proceed with endurance.

Having the main points accessible in Desk 5 helps to rapidly confirm that every match shared quantities of DNA throughout the predicted vary. Utilizing the listing in Desk 5, I created diagrams exhibiting how every match was associated to James II. This helped me visualize the connection in order that I might precisely examine and evaluate shared quantities of DNA.

 The Johnson/Anderson Household

4 matches have been chosen who descend from James William Johnson and his first spouse, Sarah Jane Anderson. These matches share an quantity of DNA throughout the predicted vary of second cousins (see the white part of Desk 5). The diagram beneath reveals every match and the quantity of DNA shared with the test-taker, James William Johnson II.

Determine 3-3. James William Johnson II DNA Matches Via Johnson–Anderson Descendants.

  The Johnson/Clark Household

Three matches have been chosen who descend from James William Johnson and his second spouse, Dempsey Tennessee Clark. As a result of these matches descend by way of a unique spouse, genetic family tree defines this kind of relationship as a half relationship to James II. Predicted half relationships will share smaller quantities of DNA than predicted full relationships as a result of the shared DNA comes from one ancestor as a substitute of two. These three matches share an quantity of DNA throughout the predicted vary of half-cousins (see the grey part of Desk 5). The diagram beneath reveals every match and the quantity of DNA shared with the test-taker, James William Johnson II.

Determine 3-4. James William Johnson II DNA Matches Via Johnson–Clark Descendants. 

The Alford/Evans Household

Three matches have been chosen who descend from Robert F. Alford and his spouse, Alcy Evans. These matches share an quantity of DNA throughout the predicted vary of third cousins (see the blue part of Desk 5). The diagram beneath reveals every match and the quantity of DNA shared with the test-taker, James William Johnson II.

Determine 3-5. James William Johnson II DNA Matches Via Alford–Evans Descendant.

 

Mixed Johnson/Alford Households

When diagrams 1-1, 1-2, and 1-3 are mixed, the outcomes present how atDNA helps the hypothesized relationship between James and the Alford mother and father. The diagram beneath reveals the mixed Johnson/Alford matches in blue and the Alford–Evans descendant matches in gentle blue.

Determine 3-6. James William Johnson II DNA Matches by way of Robert F. Alford and Alcy Evans.

  

Shared Matches

A shared match on AncestryDNA “is somebody who seems each in your listing of matches and on another person’s.”

For instance, James II and his second cousin, James 5, each have James II’s third cousin, Robert 1, on their listing of matches; Robert 1 is a shared match (see Desk 6). James II’s second cousins from Determine 3-6 are listed in Desk 6, shaded in blue. James II’s third cousins from Determine 3-6 are additionally proven in Desk 6, shaded in grey. All shared matches are marked with an “x” in white.

The shared matches in Desk 6 type a genetic community or cluster. Utilizing this genetic cluster with documented dad or mum–baby hyperlinks can result in strong conclusions: “If a number of members of a genetic community group all descend from a recognized ancestor or ancestral couple, then it may be assumed that the opposite members of that group are additionally probably associated by way of the identical ancestral line.”[4]

In James II’s case, the DNA matches forming the genetic cluster in Desk 6 all probably descend from Robert Alford and Alcy Evans. Though every dad or mum–baby hyperlink must be verified with documentary analysis, these matches help a organic relationship between the Johnsons and Alfords. Documenting these hyperlinks may be completed in future analysis.

Alford-Tipton Matches

Ancestry’s ThruLines© instrument makes use of their on-line public member timber to recommend genealogical relationships to DNA matches. The outcomes are solely as correct because the member’s timber. Thirty–two DNA matches have been instructed to have descended by way of Charles Alford and his spouse, Elizabeth Tipton. Six matches–one from every Alford sibling–are named in Desk 5 (shaded inexperienced). These matches share an quantity of DNA throughout the predicted vary of fourth cousins. Though every dad or mum–baby hyperlink must be verified with documentary analysis, this reveals sturdy proof of a organic relationship between the Johnsons and Alfords.

Determine 3-7. Variety of James William Johnson II’s DNA Matches Via Alford–Tipton Descendants.

  

Evans-Parks Matches

Twenty-three DNA matches have been instructed to have descended by way of Patrick Henry Evans and his spouse, Rebecca Parks. Three Evans sibling matches are named in Desk 5 (shaded yellow).  These matches additionally share an quantity of DNA throughout the predicted vary of fourth cousins. Though every dad or mum–baby hyperlink must be verified with documentary analysis, this reveals sturdy proof of a organic relationship between the Johnsons and Evans.

Determine 3-8. Variety of James William Johnson’s DNA Matches Via Evans–Parks Descendants.

After an intensive examination of Autosomal DNA, I concluded that DNA matches on the second, third, and fourth cousin ranges supplied sturdy and adequate proof for a organic relationship between the James William Johnson descendants and the Robert and Alcy Alford descendants.

Conclusion

I ended with this written conclusion: This analysis session efficiently confirmed that James William Johnson was born Patrick M. Alford. The proof contained within the paper clues of James and Patrick’s FAN membership, along with DNA evaluation, show the organic connection between the Johnsons and the Alfords. The timeline of occasions in varied data in contrast with their places confirmed chance. These occasions considered by way of the lenses of historic and societal context indicated why. The geographical consideration of rivers, farmland, and forests, included with accessible journey and communication, make clear how.

 Ideas for FAN membership analysis

  • Start with an open thoughts (purpose and logic)
  • Contemplate identify variations and patterns (shortened given names; center names; nicknames, re-naming of family members)
  • Observe who and what’s lacking (Unfavorable evidence- No Patrick after 1879; No James earlier than 1879; Elsie Jane lacking in 1900 census; Johnson surname lacking from Y-DNA outcomes)

 

To learn the total analysis report, see beneath:

ANONYMIZED James William Johnson Challenge


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